Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:


Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European  cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of  Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana J Andersen, Rob Beelen, Evangelia Samoli, Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Paul Fischer,

Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Bert Brunekreef, Wei W Xun, Klea Katsouyanni, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, Lars Modig,

Anna Oudin, Bente Oftedal, Per E Schwarze, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire, Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna Penell,

Michal Korek, Göran Pershagen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Mette Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Thomas Ellermann, Marloes Eeftens, Petra H Peeters,

Kees Meliefste, Meng Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Timothy J Key, Kees de Hoogh, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alice Vilier, Sara Grioni,

Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni,

Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Antonia Trichopoulou, ChristinaBamia, Paolo Vineis*, Gerard Hoek*


Background Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between

long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.

Methods This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used

data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air

pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10), less than

2·5 µm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators.

We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random

effects models for meta-analyses.

Findings The 312944 cohort members contributed 4013131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years),

2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between

risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03–1·45] per 10 µg/m³). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18

(0·96–1·46) per 5 µg/m³. The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the

lung of 1·51 (1·10–2·08) and 1·55 (1·05–2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000 vehicle-km per day within

100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99–1·21). The results showed no association

between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95–1·07] per 20 µg/m³) or traffic intensity on the

nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97–1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day).

Interpretation Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe.

Funding European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme.

New Report Finds Fracking Poses Health Risks to Pregnant Women and Children – EcoWatch: Cutting Edge Environmental News Service

New Report Finds Fracking Poses Health Risks to Pregnant Women and Children – EcoWatch: Cutting Edge Environmental News Service.


Full Report:Toxic and Dirty Secrets: The Truth About Fracking and Your Family’s Health

China’s toxic harvest: A “cancer village” rises in protest |

China’s toxic harvest: A “cancer village” rises in protest |


A hill of phosphogypsum rises above the village of Liuchong, in Hubei province. Dasheng chemical dumps the substance, a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer that contains cancer-causing chemicals like arsenic, chromium-6, and cadmium, above the river that feeds the village.

ARD – Munich – Fracking German Report – concerned residents, contaminated lands (English Sub) – YouTube

ARD – Munich – Fracking German Report – concerned residents, contaminated lands (English Sub) – YouTube.  Friends–

In the gas fields of northern Germany, formation fluid is carried via a network of underground pipes to a disposal reservoir.  It’s a closed loop system.  In spite of that, an alleged cancer cluster in the rural communities located above these pipelines prompted soil testing which found impressively high levels of benzene.
The pipes are made of heavy duty plastic and do not appear to be corroding or leaking.  The tentative explanation is that benzene and other hydrocarbons are actually diffusing through the plastic pipe itself.
It’s possible that industry had prior knowledge that these plastic materials allow for the diffusion of lightweight hydrocarbons, and that revelation is now part of the scandal.
Here below is an English-subtitled report about that story.  A contact from Germany tells me that the company (RWE DEA) is now no longer allowed to use this disposal well.
A footnote from me:  Not only is benzene one of a small handful of chemicals classified by government and international agencies around the world as PROVEN human carcinogen, it is an escape artist.  Benzene is the Houdini of hydrocarbons.
Questions for New York:
How could we transport millions of gallons of benzene-contaminated fracking wastewater, or treat it on site, and entirely isolate and contain every single benzene molecule in perpetuity?
If German engineering cannot create a closed loop system for fracking waste that prevents the release of known carcinogens into human communities, who can?
Are outbreaks of cancer in people the way that NYS plans to identify unanticipated materials and engineering problems?

Kind regards,  Sandra

Shale Gas Exploitation is Unacceptable Due to the Existence of a Cancer Epidemic in the United States

Shale Gas Exploitation is Unacceptable Due to the Existence of a Cancer Epidemic in the United States

Shale Gas Exploitation is Unacceptable Due to the Existence of a
Cancer Epidemic in the United States-
Donald L. Hassig, November 4,2011

I have recently spoken with New York State Department of Environmental
Conservation (DEC) Deputy Commissioner Eugene Leff concerning the
health risks of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF).  We discussed
the possibility of the production of a health risk assessment.  He
explained that the decision was made not to produce a health risk
assessment due to the difficulty of estimating quantities of exposure
to various pollutant releases associated with HVHF.  I believe that a
health risk assessment should nevertheless be produced because it
would be the proper document for portrayal of the complex and
impossible to quantify exposures to pollutant carcinogens associated
with HVHF.

Deputy Commissioner Leff takes the position that the best way to
proceed with HVHF in New York State is to make a firm commitment to
minimizing all exposures to harmful chemical substances released into
the environment by shale gas exploitation.  I argued that considering
the history of shale gas exploitation throughout the United States and
the limited ability of the DEC to enforce laws and regulations already
in existence it would not be possible for DEC to act in a sufficiently
substantial manner upon any commitment to minimization of exposures.
There are many pollutant carcinogen exposures associated with shale
gas exploitation that have not been addressed in those areas where
this activity exists, including:  (1) benzene, formaldehyde,
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particulates
emissions of diesel trucks and compressors; (2) chemical carcinogens
present in fracturing fluid and disposed of so as to contaminate
surface and ground waters; (3) chemical carcinogens evaporating into
the outdoor atmosphere from holding tanks utilized at gas well sites;
(4) chemical carcinogens evaporating from HVHF waste water and
entering the outdoor atmosphere; and (5) radioactive nuclides brought
to the surface of the Earth in HVHF waste water.

Shale gas exploitation is not currently possible without imposing a
relatively large quantity of exposure to pollutant carcinogens upon
New York State residents.  At a time when cancer incidence is already
far above an acceptable level as a result of exposures to pollutant
carcinogens released into the environment by past and current
polluting activities, shale gas exploitation is not acceptable.  Our
organization advocates for a ban on shale gas exploitation throughout
the United States.

Cancer Action NY is a member organization of the New York State Cancer
Consortium (CC).  The CC is currently producing an environmental
exposure section for the 2011-2016 New York State Comprehensive Cancer
Control Plan (CCCP).  Cancer Action NY advocates for the inclusion of a
prohibition against HVHF in the CCCP.  Organizations with an interest in
expressing support for the inclusion of such a prohibition in the CCCP can
contact the CC via email at:  <>.

Donald L. Hassig, Director
Cancer Action NY
Cancer Action News Network
P O Box 340
Colton, NY USA 13625